________________________________________________________________________________
PROVINCIAL AND TERRITORIAL BENEFITS OVER TIME

________________________________________________________________________________

No other program of income support is as erratic as welfare. Every year, there are gains and losses that vary from one category of recipient to another and one jurisdiction to another. Tableá5 summarizes the ups and downs of recent years.

The figures consist of those benefits shown in Table 2 that are exclusively within provincial and territorial jurisdiction, in other words, total welfare incomes less the federal Child Tax Benefit and the GST credit. Comparable figures for other years were calculated from Welfare in Canada: The Tangled Safety Net and previous editions of Welfare Incomes.

Using the Consumer Price Index, all the dollar figures in Table 5 are expressed in constant 1999 dollars to factor out the effects of inflation and to show the real purchasing power of welfare benefits over time. The percentages in the last two columns show increases or decreases in real purchasing power.

The table provides comparisons of provincial and territorial benefits for 1986 to 1999 for the single employable person, the single-parent family and the two-parent family. The National Council of Welfare did not include a single person with a disability in its original calculations of welfare incomes for 1986, so the comparison for this group is available from 1989 only. The National Council of Welfare first estimated welfare incomes in the Northwest Territories in 1993, so the table shows comparisons only since that time.

Most welfare recipients in Canada saw further erosion of their already precarious financial situation in 1999. Between 1998 and 1999, the cost of living rose by 1.7ápercent. Welfare benefits were frozen or decreased in most jurisdictions. When the change from 1998 to 1999 appears as -1.7ápercent, it means that the welfare rates were frozen and welfare recipients lost 1.7 percent of their purchasing power to inflation.

In Newfoundland, small increases in welfare payments for single employable and disabled recipients kept the value of welfare incomes close to the previous year. However, even with the introduction of the Newfoundland and Labrador Child and Family Benefit, the provincial contribution to welfare for families with children failed to keep pace with the increase in the cost of living. Newfoundland redesigned its welfare programs in 1999, and reduced the welfare payments slightly.

In Prince Edward Island, the welfare incomes of the single employable and single disabled person dropped in value simply because of freezes in their provincial welfare benefits. The provincial portion of incomes for families with children dropped considerably, by 5.7 percent for the single parent, and by 6.3 percent for the couple with two children. This is because Prince Edward Island claws back the supplement to the federal Child Tax Benefit. While the federal government gives money to poor parents, the province takes it away. This results in a significant drop in the province's contribution to families.

30

á

Nova Scotia also claws back the supplement to the federal Child Tax Benefit. Although the province gives families with children a payment under the Nova Scotia Child Benefit, the amount is much smaller than the amount the province takes from families on welfare. The result is that the provincial contribution to welfare incomes drops by 3.9 percent for the single parent with one child, and by 8.1ápercent for the couple with two children. The incomes of single employable people on welfare in Nova Scotia dropped by 2.9 percent because of a change in welfare policy. As of 1999, welfare recipients are no longer eligible for a clothing allowance during their first three months on welfare. The single disabled person's welfare was frozen, so it simply dropped in value by the cost of living.

In New Brunswick, welfare incomes were frozen and dropped by the cost of living, 1.7ápercent. New Brunswick does not claw back the supplement to the federal Child Tax Benefit, so the incomes of families with children lost only by the cost of living.

In Quebec, there were very slight increases in the payments to single employable and single disabled welfare recipients, which raised their incomes slightly higher than the cost of living. Quebec claws back the supplement to the federal Child Tax Benefit. Even with Quebec's programs for families with children, its provincial contribution to welfare incomes fell well below the cost of living, by 4.2 percent for the single parent and by 5.6ápercent for the couple.

Ontario's single employable and single disabled welfare recipients lost by 1.7ápercent, or the cost of living, because there were no increases in their provincial payments. The single parent and couple with children lost 4.9 percent and 6 percent respectively because Ontario claws back the supplement to the federal Child Tax Benefit.

Manitoba's single employable welfare recipients lost 1.7 percent of the value of their income because of a freeze in their provincial assistance. Single disabled recipients received a slight increase in their special benefits which reduced the erosion by the cost of living. Manitoba claws back the supplement to the federal Child Tax Benefit, so the families with children lost 5.8 percent of the value of provincial assistance for the single parent, and 6.6 percent of the income for the couple with two children.

In Saskatchewan, the figure for assistance for utilities is now based on the December 1999 rate. In previous years, this report used the September rate. This is a slightly higher figure, so it masks the fact that there were in reality no increases in the provincial payments to people on welfare. In reality, single employable and single disabled welfare recipients saw a decline in the value of their welfare incomes equivalent to the cost of living. Because Saskatchewan claws back the supplement to the federal Child Tax Benefit, the value of the provincial payments to families with children declined significantly.

In Alberta, value of the single employable welfare recipient's income declined by the cost of living. Alberta increased the Personal Needs Supplement for welfare recipients with disabilities, so the value of their incomes increased slightly. Because Alberta claws back the supplement to the federal Child Tax Benefit, the value of the provincial contribution to the income of the single parent declined by 2.8 percent, and the value of Alberta's contribution to the income of the couple on welfare declined by 4.9ápercent. This occurred even though Alberta increased the shelter allowance for both types of families with children.

31

á

In British Columbia, the single employable and single disabled person saw the value of their provincial incomes decline by the value of the cost of living. British Columbia claws back the value of the supplement to the federal Child Tax Benefit, so these families saw a decline of 4.9 percent and 6.1 percent respectively for the single parent and couple with children.

The incomes of single employable and single disabled welfare recipients in Yukon were frozen between 1998 and 1999. The two families with children saw a decrease in the value of Yukon's contribution to their incomes because Yukon claws back the supplement to the federal Child Tax Benefit.

The value of the Northwest Territories' contribution to welfare incomes appears to have increased significantly. This is because in the previous edition of this report, Northwest Territories was not able to provide an estimate of its payments for utilities. In fact, welfare incomes in the Territories have not increased, and the Territories claws back the supplement to the federal Child Tax Benefit. Although the Territories began the NWT Child Benefit in July 1998, this increase in its contribution did not entirely offset the decrease caused by the clawback.

The view of welfare incomes over the last decade is bleak. The purchasing power of welfare incomes fell everywhere in Canada for most of the 1990s.

Many of the welfare rates shown in Table 5 peaked in 1986 or 1989 and fell more or less steadily since then. In Alberta, for example, provincial benefits for single employable recipients as measured in 1999 constant dollars plummeted from $8,578 a year in 1986 to $4,824 in 1999, a decline of 43.8 percent. The peak years in Prince Edward Island were 1986 and 1989, followed by cuts year after year ever since.

The patterns were substantially different in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia. In these provinces, welfare rates peaked in the early to mid-1990s. The end result was the same, however, as welfare rates declined further and further by the end of the decade.

In most cases, it was single employable people on welfare who suffered the most. Between 1986 and 1999, welfare benefits for a single employable person in Newfoundland dropped by a shocking 76.2 percent. A sizeable increase in Quebec resulted from a decision to raise abysmally low rates for single employable people under 30. Even then, a single employable person in Quebec received only $6,024 a year in 1999.

32

á

TABLE 5, 1999 PROVINCIAL AND TERRITORIAL WELFARE BENEFITS IN CONSTANT DOLLARS

á

1986

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

%
CHANGE
1986-1999

%
CHANGE
1989-1999

%
CHANGE
1998-1999

NEWFOUNDLAND

Single Employable

4,795

4,628

4,599

4,528

4,753

4,694

4,685

4,586

2,610

1,138

1,143

1,142

-76.2%

-75.3%

-0.1%

Disabled Person

á

9,322

9,221

8,945

9,142

9,016

9,000

8,809

8,667

8,599

8,551

8,480

á

-9.0%

-0.8%

Single Parent, One Child

12,022

11,782

11,755

11,889

12,374

12,219

12,197

11,938

11,746

11,667

11,630

11,501

-4.3%

-2.4%

-1.1%

Couple, Two Children

13,907

13,630

13,592

13,159

13,391

13,222

13,197

12,917

12,710

12,744

12,688

12,479

-10.3%

-8.4%

-1.6%

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND

Single Employable

8,906

8,622

8,578

8,577

8,699

8,632

7,754

5,973

5,471

5,460

5,406

5,316

-40.3%

-38.3%

-1.7%

Disabled Person

á

10,034

9,928

9,788

9,905

9,817

9,695

9,326

8,595

8,430

8,348

8,208

á

-18.2%

-1.7%

Single Parent, One Child

12,277

11,886

11,974

11,882

12,067

11,991

11,761

11,198

10,682

10,241

9,834

9,277

-24.4%

-22.0%

-5.7%

Couple, Two Children

17,990

17,703

17,694

17,801

18,015

17,871

17,526

16,815

15,513

15,560

14,895

13,961

-22.4%

-21.1%

-6.3%

NOVA SCOTIA

Single Employable

6,546

7,303

6,964

6,624

6,524

6,406

6,394

6,258

6,177

4,548

4,503

4,374

-33.2%

-40.1%

-2.9%

Disabled Person

á

9,613

9,548

9,411

9,282

9,114

9,253

9,082

8,936

8,799

8,714

8,568

á

-10.9%

-1.7%

Single Parent, One Child

11,336

11,685

11,594

11,458

11,457

11,249

11,407

11,194

11,014

10,845

10,559

10,152

-10.4%

-13.1%

-3.9%

Couple, Two Children

13,645

14,864

14,196

13,724

13,737

13,532

13,507

13,220

14,187

14,370

13,929

12,795

-6.2%

-13.9%

-8.1%

33

á

TABLE 5, 1999 PROVINCIAL AND TERRITORIAL WELFARE BENEFITS IN CONSTANT DOLLARS

á

1986

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

%
CHANGE
1986-1999

%
CHANGE
1989-1999

%
CHANGE
1998-1999

NEW BRUNSWICK

Single Employable

3,226

3,493

3,438

3,366

3,368

3,320

3,340

3,282

3,267

3,254

3,222

3,168

-1.8%

-9.3%

-1.7%

Disabled Person

á

9,151

9,003

8,743

8,752

8,693

6,819

6,792

6,762

6,843

6,810

6,696

á

-26.8%

-1.7%

Single Parent, One Child

9,690

9,469

9,316

9,111

9,176

9,201

9,578

10,045

9,985

10,106

10,093

9,924

2.4%

4.8%

-1.7%

Couple, Two Children

10,482

10,244

10,064

9,972

10,296

10,321

10,696

11,244

11,172

11,465

11,525

11,332

8.1%

10.6%

-1.7%

QUEBEC

Single Employable

3,396

4,366

6,191

6,431

6,623

6,640

6,498

6,360

6,258

6,070

5,980

6,024

77.4%

38.0%

0.7%

Disabled Person

á

7,848

8,136

8,370

8,626

8,619

8,759

8,573

8,624

8,614

8,689

8,712

á

11.0%

0.3%

Single Parent, One Child

11,428

10,607

11,295

10,339

11,738

12,221

12,485

12,220

12,024

11,391

11,007

10,541

-7.8%

-0.6%

-4.2%

Couple, Two Children

14,770

13,852

13,546

13,948

14,420

14,843

14,646

14,336

14,106

13,386

12,907

12,182

-17.5%

-12.1%

-5.6%

ONTARIO

Single Employable

7,258

7,807

8,519

8,745

9,046

9,012

9,017

8,371

6,867

6,802

6,736

6,623

-8.7%

-15.2%

-1.7%

Disabled Person

á

11,272

12,018

12,286

12,489

12,412

12,418

12,154

11,959

11,776

11,661

11,466

á

1.7%

-1.7%

Single Parent, One Child

12,998

14,011

15,692

16,082

16,373

16,341

16,351

15,165

12,453

12,285

11,858

11,279

-13.2%

-19.5%

-4.9%

Couple, Two Children

16,179

17,681

20,589

20,978

21,433

21,369

21,186

19,527

16,091

15,875

15,207

14,292

-11.7%

-19.2%

-6.0%

34

á

TABLE 5, 1999 PROVINCIAL AND TERRITORIAL WELFARE BENEFITS IN CONSTANT DOLLARS

á

1986

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

%
CHANGE
1986-1999

%
CHANGE
1989-1999

%
CHANGE
1998-1999

MANITOBA

Single Employable

7,201

7,476

7,568

7,479

7,631

7,504

6,984

6,846

6,331

5,497

5,443

5,352

-25.7%

-28.4%

-1.7%

Disabled Person

á

8,129

8,018

7,888

9,697

8,730

8,661

8,477

8,341

8,213

8,133

8,027

á

-1.3%

-1.3%

Single Parent, One Child

11,125

10,910

10,771

10,594

11,733

10,521

10,436

10,214

10,050

9,896

9,492

8,941

-19.6%

-18.0%

-5.8%

Couple, Two Children

16,855

17,706

19,038

19,050

19,604

17,866

18,177

17,780

15,930

14,616

13,782

12,867

-23.7%

-27.3%

-6.6%

SASKATCHEWAN

Single Employable

6,028

6,036

5,896

5,722

5,939

6,250

6,238

6,106

6,008

5,414

5,378

5,540

-8.1%

-8.2%

3.0%

Disabled Person

á

9,837

9,519

9,156

9,072

8,984

8,967

8,777

8,886

7,945

7,943

8,160

á

-17.0%

2.7%

Single Parent, One Child

12,369

12,329

11,970

11,526

11,394

11,263

11,243

11,004

10,827

10,662

9,445

9,483

-23.3%

-23.1%

0.4%

Couple, Two Children

17,351

17,107

16,600

15,962

16,225

15,996

16,028

15,691

15,440

14,317

13,768

13,752

-20.7%

-19.6%

-0.1%

ALBERTA

Single Employable

8,578

5,965

5,687

6,187

6,232

5,872

5,120

5,012

4,931

4,884

4,906

4,824

-43.8%

-19.1%

-1.7%

Disabled Person

á

7,377

7,033

7,409

7,359

7,141

7,113

6,983

6,871

6,795

6,798

6,858

á

-7.0%

0.9%

Single Parent, One Child

12,560

11,185

10,663

11,194

11,165

10,715

9,955

9,744

9,586

9,518

9,340

9,079

-27.7%

-18.8%

-2.8%

Couple, Two Children

18,674

16,480

15,710

17,326

17,344

16,698

15,673

15,499

15,251

15,089

14,712

13,984

-25.1%

-15.1%

-4.9%

35

á

TABLE 5, 1999 PROVINCIAL AND TERRITORIAL WELFARE BENEFITS IN CONSTANT DOLLARS

á

1986

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

%
CHANGE
1986-1999

%
CHANGE
1989-1999

%
CHANGE
1998-1999

BRITISH COLUMBIA

Single Employable

6,127

6,727

6,872

6,766

6,970

6,991

7,164

7,035

6,395

6,297

6,235

6,131

0.1%

-8.9%

-1.7%

Disabled Person

á

9,283

9,595

9,378

9,786

9,849

10,077

9,897

9,738

9,589

9,496

9,337

á

0.6%

-1.7%

Single Parent, One Child

11,034

12,152

12,271

12,029

12,567

12,607

12,916

12,682

12,478

12,236

11,809

11,231

1.8%

-7.6%

-4.9%

Couple, Two Children

15,071

15,177

15,271

14,924

15,900

15,987

16,470

16,173

15,914

15,567

14,902

13,992

-7.2%

-7.8%

-6.1%

YUKON

Single Employable

7,280

8,795

8,893

8,750

8,724

8,566

8,550

8,369

8,234

11,241

11,131

10,945

50.3%

24.5%

-1.7%

Disabled Person

á

9,838

9,888

9,693

9,652

9,477

9,460

9,959

9,799

12,781

12,6575

12,445

á

26.5%

-1.7%

Single Parent, One Child

13,075

14,536

14,615

14,496

14,489

14,227

14,200

13,899

13,676

16,910

16,437

15,770

20.6%

8.5%

-4.1%

Couple, Two Children

20,032

21,822

21,660

21,667

21,840

21,445

21,405

20,951

20,615

24,355

23,605

22,525

12.4%

3.2%

-4.6%

NORTHWEST TERRITORIES

Single Employable

á

á

á

á

á

12,265

12,242

11,982

11,712

7,394

7,383

8,299

á

á

12.4%

Disabled Person

á

á

á

á

á

13,892

13,867

13,572

13,589

9,798

9,763

10,639

á

á

9.0%

Single Parent, One Child

á

á

á

á

á

20,793

20,755

20,314

19,894

17,414

17,216

18,121

á

á

5.3%

Couple, Two Children

á

á

á

á

á

24,608

24,601

24,079

23,568

22,341

22,362

22,812

á

á

2.0%

36

á

Most perverse of all the changes in provincial and territorial contributions to welfare incomes is the effect of the federal Child Tax Benefit on the incomes of those families with children that are forced to depend on welfare. When the federal government introduced the Benefit in 1998, it allowed provincial and territorial governments to claw back the supplement by reducing the welfare benefits of families by the value of the supplement. Only Newfoundland and New Brunswick refused to exercise this option.

The charts at the end of this section show the effect of the clawback on the total welfare income of a single-parent family with one child and on a couple with two children. We have calculated welfare incomes over time by adjusting the amounts to the cost of living as we did in Tableá5. All the annual welfare incomes are expressed in 1999 dollars.

We have separated the portion of welfare incomes that is paid by the province or territory from the portion that is paid by the federal government. Each chart has a white bar that shows the contribution of the provincial or territorial government. The provincial or territorial contribution is the amount found in Table 5.

The black bar shows the federal government contribution to the welfare incomes of these families on welfare. This amount includes the GST, the federal Child Tax Benefit and its supplement. The federal portion of welfare incomes has grown every year because of increases in the federal government's support to low-income families. As of July 1, 1998, a single-parent family with one child received a supplement of $605 a year (or $50.24 a month) and the couple with children received $785 a year (or $65.42 a month). As of July 1, 1999, the supplement for the single-parent family increased to $785 a year ($65.42 a month) and for the couple with two children, $1,370 a year ($114.17 a month). On July 1, 2000, the federal government again increased the supplement, this time to $955 a year ($79.58 a month) for the single-parent family, and to $1,710 a year ($142.50 a month) for the couple.

Together, the white and the black bars show the total welfare income for the single-parent family with one child and for the couple with two children for the period since the National Council of Welfare began calculating welfare incomes in 1986. What these graphs show is that in those provinces and territories where the governments have clawed back the supplement to the federal Child Tax Benefit, the federal government is providing a larger and larger share of the welfare incomes, but the total welfare incomes of families with children have not improved. With few exceptions, the white bars that show the share of welfare incomes that is paid by the provinces and the territories become smaller as the years go on.

In Newfoundland, the total 1999 annual welfare income of a single-parent family with one child was $13,924. This was made up of a contribution of $11,501 from the province and $2,423 from the federal government. This is a very slight increase over the 1998 total income of $13,695, and is still well below the 1994 peak of $14,090. In 1994, the federal government contributed only $1,874. Even with the increase in the federal government's contribution, various cutbacks and freezes in the provincial contribution throughout the 1990s have brought the total welfare income down from the 1994 rate. The increasing federal government contribution has brought the total welfare income up slightly, despite the fact that the province is contributing less to the welfare income than it has since the National Council of Welfare began to track welfare incomes.

37

á

The couple with two children had a total annual income of $16,317, up slightly from $15,464 in 1998. Almost all the increase in the welfare income is because of the increase in the federal government's supplement to the Child Tax Benefit. The Newfoundland and Labrador Child and Family Benefit began in August 1999, but is worth only $17 a month for a family with one child and $43 a month for a family with two children. The total 1999 welfare income of $16,317 is slightly lower than the 1986 total welfare income of $16,915, but in 1986, the federal government contributed only $1,504, while in 1999, it contributed $2,423. As in the case of the single-parent family, Newfoundland's contribution to this family's welfare income is less now than ever before, while the federal government's contribution is more than it has ever been.

New Brunswick is the only other province that does not take away the money the federal government gives families on welfare. The New Brunswick Child Tax Benefit has provided an extra $21 a month for each child since October 1997. As a result of these two measures, a single-parent family with one child saw modest gains in its total welfare income, from $12,125 in 1998 to $12,319 in 1999, and the couple saw its income rise from $14,731 in 1998 to $15,170. Because of a combined effort by the province and the federal government, the total welfare income of the single-parent family is now the highest it has been since the National Council of Welfare began to track welfare incomes. Both the federal government and New Brunswick now contribute more to the single-parent family's income than ever before.

Unlike Newfoundland and New Brunswick, which chose not to claw back the supplement to the federal Child Tax Benefit, Prince Edward Island reduced its welfare payments by the amount the federal government gave to parents on welfare. The province also failed to provide increases to welfare that might have helped welfare incomes to keep pace with inflation. As a result, the total welfare income of both a single-parent family with one child and a couple with two children in PEI declined even as the federal government pumped billions of dollars into a system intended for poor families. Their incomes were $11,875 in 1998 and $11,670 in 1999, and $18,102 in 1998 and $17,799 in 1999 respectively. For both families, this is a drop in total welfare incomes from a peak in the early 1990s.

The same pattern holds for Nova Scotia. The province clawed back the supplement to the federal Child Tax Benefit. Although Nova Scotia used that money to provide a provincial child benefit, it never gave families enough money to keep pace with the cost of living. Total welfare incomes declined very slightly for the single-parent family from $12,609 in 1998 to $12,558 in 1999, and for the couple with two children from $17,135 in 1998 to $16,633 in 1999. In the case of both types of families with children, the black portion of the bar in the chart is larger than ever, showing how the federal government is now contributing more than ever to family incomes.

38

á

For both family types in Quebec, the chart illustrates how total welfare incomes have declined very slightly each year from 1994, despite significant restructuring of Quebec's family benefits. All the while, the federal government's contribution to the family income increased. For the single-parent family, there was a decline from $12,995 in 1998 to $12,957 in 1999, and for the couple with two children, a decline from $16,079 to $15,000 between 1998 and 1999. Quebec asked the federal government to vary the amount of the Child Tax Benefit, so these numbers are not consistent from 1998 to 1999.

The Ontario charts show the dramatic impact of the provincial government's decision to cut welfare incomes by 21.6% in October 1995. Although the federal portion of welfare incomes began to grow when the federal government introduced the Child Tax Benefit, the impact of the provincial government's draconian welfare cuts overshadows any increases in federal help. Ontario's decision to claw back the supplement to the federal Child Tax Benefit ensures that welfare families do not enjoy any improvement in benefits. The single-parent family received $13,928 in 1998 and $13,704 in 1999, and the couple with two children saw its income decline from $18,414 to $18,130 between 1998 and 1999. Again, the black part of each bar is larger each year, showing how the federal government's portion of welfare incomes has grown.

The Manitoba charts show how welfare incomes for both family types have declined through the 1990s. The single-parent family's income reached a peak of $13,567 in 1992, and the income of the couple with two children reached $22,492 that year. Incomes for both family types have declined steadily since then, though the federal government's contribution to the welfare income is now higher than ever.

Manitoba claws back the supplement to the federal Child Tax Benefit. The absence of increases in welfare payments has allowed the cost of living to erode the value of welfare incomes. For single-parent families, this meant a decline from $11,523 in 1998 to $11,328 in 1999. For the couple with two children, incomes dropped from $16,989 in 1998 to $16,705 in 1999. Manitoba has announced that as of July 2000, the province would no longer claw back further increases to the supplement of the federal Child Tax Benefit. The impact of this decision will be assessed in future editions of this report.

Saskatchewan claws back the supplement to the federal Child Tax Benefit by reducing the Saskatchewan Child Benefit by the value of the federal supplement. The clawback, combined with the erosion of inflation, has brought the value of welfare income down slightly. However, a change in the way Saskatchewan reported the payment of utilities for families on welfare in 1999 masks the changes in overall welfare income between 1998 and 1999. Because of the change in Saskatchewan's method of reporting welfare incomes for this report, the income of the single-parent rose from $11,492 in 1998 to $11,877 in 1999. The income of the two-parent family rose from $16,974 in 1998 to $17,590 in 1999.

For both family types in Saskatchewan, welfare incomes have dropped significantly since 1986 when the National Council of Welfare first began to track welfare incomes. In 1986, single-parent families received $13,873 and two-parent families received $20,359. This significant decline in total welfare incomes has occurred despite the fact that the federal government has never given so much money directly to families on welfare.

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The charts show how welfare incomes in Alberta have decreased since 1986. At that time, the single-parent family received $13,952 and the couple with two children received $21,814. A series of welfare reforms in Alberta caused the total incomes of these families to decline throughout the 1990s until they began to rise in 1998.

Alberta claws back the supplement to the federal Child Tax Benefit. However, the province made several small increases to portions of its welfare payments in 1998 and 1999. These helped the total welfare income of single parents to rise slightly, but did not make up for the cost of taking away the supplement. The shrinking white bars in the chart show how Alberta's contribution to the total welfare income of both families has dwindled each year from 1991 onward. The increase in the black bars shows how the federal government's share has grown. The single parent received a total of $11,276 in 1998 and $11,375 in 1999; the couple received a total income of $18,017 in 1998 and $17,919 in 1999.

Total welfare incomes for families with children in British Columbia have dropped steadily since 1994. This occurred both because of various small cuts and freezes in the welfare system and because of the clawback of the supplement to the federal Child Tax Benefit. Although the province created its own provincial child benefits package, the new BC Family Benefits have never been high enough to make up for its other welfare policy decisions. While a single-parent family had a welfare income of $14,795 in 1994, the income dropped to $13,882 in 1998 and to $13,661 by 1999. The couple with two children had a welfare income of $19,338 in 1994, but that income had eroded to only $18,109 by 1998 and $17,830 by 1999.

Yukon also claws back the supplement to the federal Child Tax Benefit. The charts show that total welfare incomes jumped between 1996 and 1997, but this was due to a change in the way Yukon reported the cost of utilities, not an actual increase in welfare payments. Since then, the cost of living has eroded the value of the overall welfare income, while the clawback to the federal Child Tax Benefit has increased the proportion of welfare income that is in fact paid by the federal government, not the Territory. The single-parent family had a welfare income of $18,510 in 1998 and only $18,201 in 1999. The couple with two children received $26,811 in 1998, which dropped to $26,363 by 1999.

Northwest Territories claws back the supplement to the Child Tax Benefit, and the territory made no increases in welfare payments in 1999. However, the Territories changed the way it reported its welfare payments to cover utilities. As a result, the value of total welfare incomes for the single-parent family fell by the cost of living between 1998 and 1999, but due to the change in reporting of utilities the figures indicate a rise from $19, 289 in 1998 to $20,552 in 1999.

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